Baltic Dental and Maxillofacial Journal
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June, 2007, Vol. 9, No. 2



The diagnostic process for temporomandibular disorders


Growth factors, apoptotic cells and barx1 gene in bone and soft tissue of skeletal class III patients

Reliability of ARCUSdigma (KaVo®) in diagnosing temporomandibular joint pathology

Influence of the mechanical properties of composites for indirect dental restorations on pattern failure


Sarcoidosis (Heerfordt syndrome): A case report

© 2007 Stomatologija

Stomatologija 2007; 9 (2): 35-39 166 KB

The diagnostic process for temporomandibular disorders

Daniele Manfredini, Marco B. Bucci, Luca Guarda Nardini


The diagnostic process for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) is complicated by the multifactorial etiology and multiplicity of clinical signs and symptoms characterizing such disorders. Several electronic instruments and radiological techniques have been proposed over the years in the attempt to integrate clinical evaluation of TMD patients. Nonetheless, literature data still suggest that TMD diagnosis should be based on a thorough clinical assessment and international classifying scheme, also rely on standardized clinical tests to categorize TMD patients. Imaging techniques should be used to gain a better insight within the temporomandibular joint, reserving magnetic resonance to the depiction of soft tissues and computerized tomography to bone structures. EMG-based devices failed to prove effective in improving the diagnostic process for TMD, since a lack of correlation between instrumental signs and patients' symptoms has been showed. The TMD diagnostic process also relies on a psychosocial assessment of patients, which can be useful to detect a psychosocial impairment that needs to be addressed at the therapeutical level.

Key words: temporomandibular disorders; clinical features.

Received: 16 05 2007

Accepted for publishing: 10 07 2007

*Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Padova, Italy

Daniele Manfredini* – D.D.S., visiting professor in craniomandibular disorders

Marco B. Bucci – D.D.S., private practicioner, La Spezia, Italy

Luca Guarda Nardini* – D.D.S., TMD Clinic responsible, visiting professor

Address correspondence to: Dr. Daniele Manfredini, V.le XX Settembre 298, 54036 Marina di Carrara (MS), Italy.